Looking for a Few Good Males: Female Choice in Evolutionary Biology

Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2010


Translated into Slovak as Zopár Správnych Chlapov: Ženský výber v evolučnej biológii (Bratislava: Hadart Publishing, 2019).

Looking for a Few Good Males is an intellectual and cultural history of Charles Darwin’s theory of “female choice.” Darwin proposed sexual selection as a theoretical stopgap to explain why variations within a species—including differences between males and females and racial variations—could persist for long periods of time. For Darwin, sexual selection also served as a naturalistic mechanism explaining beauty in the animal kingdom. By raising issues about mind and aesthetics at the animal-human boundary, female choice proved to be a highly controversial scientific theory. In the late 19th century, zoologists criticized descriptions of female choice in animals for being anthropomorphic—a female “compared” mating displays and “chose” the “prettiest” male with whom to mate. A century later, zoologists attacks accounts of female choice as an evolutionary mechanism in humans for being zoomorphic—a woman “instinctively” mated with the first man whose courtship “rituals” stimulated her above a minimum excitatory “threshold.” Both formulations, conscious choice behavior in animals and the biological basis of behavior in humans, precipitated long-lasting disagreements among communities of biologists attempting to understand the relationship of behavior and evolution. By considering how changing conceptions of the animal-human boundary interweave with contemporaneous understandings of gendered behavior, Looking for a Few Good Males challenges the standard history of sexual selection. Rather than seeing the history of female choice as driven by male bias against the importance of female behavior, I suggest instead that biologists’ discomfort with choice-based behaviors in animals was at least as important in shaping the history of Darwin’s theory, which has become a cornerstone of modern evolution. I argue that when biologists have studied the sexual behavior of animals, their investigations were as much about what it means to be human as they were about animal nature.  


How I came to the topic [link].

Preview the book [link].



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